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The article translation majorly addresses the purpose work based research as reported in the article. The translation will also bring to light the implications of the research results in the real life situation especially in the field of organizational behavior. To evaluate the two objectives, it would be proper to talk about them in details. These include; the real work that the authors of the article performed and the reasons behind this work, the ways through which this task was carried out and the results obtained. It will also talk about how these findings can be applied practically. All these will be based on the authors work, findings and their opinions.

The Field Study

This field study is aimed at examining the effects of certain aspects in the workplace such as the relationships among psychosocial work features such as job control and job demand with learning related behavior, possibilities of learning new behavior at work place and the factors influencing the such relationships like age. In general, this study was carried out to try and evaluate the effects of current performance on the future performance. Due to lack of studies on the relationship between work and learning in a broad perspective, the research is regarded very important.

It is also important to point out that most of the studies conducted in the present world on the learning related effects of the job surroundings, omits certain vital aspects such as age differences. As a result, some jobs are likely to have bigger number of older workers than the younger generation. Since the scheme of funding early retirement is gradually dying, the possibility of majority retiring as late as 65 is quite high. This only implies that many companies will have to depend on these older employees. It is absurd that the well being of these older workers, their career progress and learning related behavior have never formed the bases on present workplace researches.

This study was jointly carried out by a group of intellectuals. The first one is Annet H. de Lange who works at Groningen University as an associate professor. She is a PhD holder. The other author, Irene Houtman works at TNO Work and Employment in Netherlands is also PhD holder. Paulien Bongers is also a professor and works at a Research Center on Physical Activity. Michiel Kompier too participated in the research and works at the Radbound University of Nijmegen in Netherlands. The other participants are Toon Taris and Paul Jansen who are both professors.

 These authors applied different measures to gauge the variables that are influential in the work field. For example, a five –item Dutch version of Karasek’s (1985) Job Content Questionnaire was used to measure the effects of job demands. For job control, its two major aspects were subjected to different engagements. Skill discretion was measured on a five item scale while decision authority had its effects verified using a three item scale. On the other hand, supervisor support was tested on a four item Dutch version of Karasek’s (1985) Job Content Questionnaire. The variables; learning-related behavior and active problem solving were measured using the scales Motivation to learn and the four-items of the Dutch coping scale respectively. Age as the last variable was measured using multiplied group analysis.

Results of the Field Study

It was noted that job tenure, leadership rank, sex, and family situation among other related aspects are directly influenced by the age groups. Just as speculated earlier, older employees held the highest job position and supervisory positions. On the other hand, the care giving jobs were assigned to younger workers. The covariates such as educational level, socio-economic status, and career possibilities are not significantly influenced by the age group. The table below illustrates some of these effects

Significant differences between groups (p < .001).


26.2 (2.50)

37.2 (3.97)

48.5 (2.79)

F(2, 642) = 1733.89

Job tenure

4.52 (2.48)

10.86 (7.06)

17.86 (9.73)

F(2, 642) = 161.69

% Men




F(2, 642) = 24.86

% Level of education

1: Primary or lower




F(2, 642) = 1.85

2: Lower vocational





3: Secondary or middle vocational





4: Higher vocational





5: College/University






Coming to motivation to learn, job control and active problem solving, it was discovered that middle aged employees have higher levels in the three areas as compared to younger and older workers. This research has also proven that jobs demand and control positively affect problem solving behavior. In other words, workers are active shapers who will always struggle to increase their job resources amidst environmental influence. It also came out that relationships between work and learning related behavior is squarely determined by age of workers.

Implications of the Study

According to the authors, the results from this study impact directly on current practices and research which may be carried in the future. It is worth increasing the effects of job controls since it improves the learning motivation of all age groups. But job demands and supervisor support, should be varied in conjunction with different age groups since they influence these groups differently. For instance, older and younger employees are at higher risks of suffering from the adverse effects created by job demands.

From the authors’ implications, it is evident that they recommend that the human relations managers change some of the things they do in controlling their employees. The managers should also desist from retaining a bigger number of older employees. In other words, there should be a net balance between young, middle-aged and older workers in the work places. This will help minimize the risks of giving high positions to workers by only considering their age as a determining factor.

Honestly, a perfect study does not exist. Every study has its own limitations. For instance, this research study has a number of shortcomings. First, there is a possibility of biasness since the findings are based on self reports. Secondly, it is impossible to separate age differences from cohort effects and this has led to obtaining some of the findings based on assumptions. Lastly, longitudinal design does not give very accurate results in studies such workplace research.

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