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O'Donnell et al. (2010) are guided by many concerns about the safety and health of adolescent girls and alcohol use, which have been neglected in the economically challenged settings. This study assesses the ‘Especially for Daughters intervention’, which aims to provide urban Black and Latino parents with information and skills to support their daughters in delaying sexual initiation and alcohol use. The contexts of gender, race, poverty, history, migration, and culture are important for the purposes of removing any bias in the anticipated response. They usually are very important, when put together in the survey, in part to permit inferences and ease of generalization.

Alcohol and sex-related risk taking among urban young adolescent girls was a representation of the independent variable, whereas their correlation to HIV/AIDS represented the dependent variable. The variables of intervention took into account factors of demography, which included the level of education and particularly the sixth-graders from New York City public schools. Control variables considered included school at enrollment, age, ethnicity (being Latina or not), family background (being in a two-parent household), and having an older sibling (O'Donnell et al., 2010).

The design employed in this research involved the collection of data through a validated instrument of survey. The quantitative study design took into account an investigation concerning alcohol use and sex amongst young girls in disadvantaged settings and the effort parents had taken in educating them in relation to HIV/AIDS. A random sample of 606 families of sixth-grade girls in four high-poverty New York City (NYC) public schools serving predominately low-income African American and Latino families were targeted for participating voluntarily in the research study (O'Donnell et al., 2010). However, only 268 families of the initial sample were incorporated in the study.

Based on the design of the study, the absence of procedures, which are standardized could create flaws in the survey instrument and thus affect its reliability. The lack of proper phrasing of questions for the purposes of coming up with clear and a complete succinct survey instrument could again lower the ability to attain high rates of response and create biases and errors during processing and completion of the study. While choosing the items to be included in the instrument, there is a likelihood of including many irrelevant items, and therefore, affecting the testing of relationships bringing about ineffective statistical conclusion validity. However, the elimination of such irrelevant items should maintain the same reliability as well as adherence to the basic constructs as done in the instrument, which was constructed specifically for this study.

Well, data was analyzed using an intent-to-treat model based on condition assignment (O'Donnell et al., 2010). The method was adopted to offer a conventional estimate of effect since the families could not have gotten or responded to the survey tools or in a case, where the audio CDs were considered to be treated.  While this was useful in this sense, a deductive analysis that tests hypothesis together with the use of standardized instruments like the surveys used are characteristic of methods of a quantitative nature like in this study. These kinds of methods are both useful and most appropriate to any data that is observable, measured as well as analyzed in a numerical way.  The characteristics of delaying sexual initiation and alcohol use are quantifiable and perceptible. Therefore, if participants agree to the hypothesis that: 1) alcohol use and sex-related risk behaviors can accelerate contraction of HIV/AIDS among young adolescents; and 2) audio CD parent education can positively impact on sex-related risk behaviors on young adolescents, then from a deductive approach, audio CD parent education can help reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS among young girls in economically challenged settings.

A random sample, which is equivalent to about 44% (268 families out of a possible 606) of the population targeted was sufficiently good in providing information representative of the entire group having at most 87% level of confidence as seen with the parents initially enrolled and who again participated in a three-month post-intervention follow-up surveys (O'Donnell et al., 2010). Therefore, the measures that were used did provide credibility to the data based on the assurance that facilitated the generalization of the findings. With a confidence interval used in the study, the survey results were consistent and reliable. A descriptive statistics meant for each particular item in the instrument of survey offered a supplementary research data analysis. Well, analysis was made getting the data gathered from the survey and thereby getting the relationships therein, which facilitated getting the required information concerning the topic in a question. This was a very simple and easy procedure, which worked so well in the effort of generalizing the findings of the study at this stage.

The design was made to promote a smooth data analysis without any temptations to misinterpret the opinions of the participants. The conclusions made out of the research were to some extent coherent with the data collected about early sexual initiation, alcohol use and parent education programs. From the findings of this study, the promotion and protection of health would be very crucial in making information available required for change amongst young girls in economically challenged settings and thereby making the positions of healthcare well accepted in the community at large. All the same, the reporting of the data did not maintain privacy and confidentiality of the information. As a result, this would be of great concern in a company or institution setting, where confidentiality is important. Again, if matters like HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, maternal and child health were the main subject, this type of study would be obsolete. 

Basically, there is the absence of results generalization in this case study approach. The purpose is not really to generalize from the collected information, which was taken from the case study as this is also made possible using a qualitative approach, which permits a bigger understanding of the main observable fact studied. The findings of the case study depend on the context of the observable fact and as a result, generalization cannot be done to serve the same purpose in other contexts. Owing to this opinion, the results of a case study are generalized only to a proposition of theory and not really to a population. The theory of making decision is the main proposition of theory for the research study. 

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