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Studies indicate that the human memory has a significant role in influencing ones 'intelligence'. This means that the working memory can affect the ability to retrieve and apply information when needed to solve a problem easily and quickly. Hence intelligence can be defined as the ability and speed at which one can solve a problem (Ackerman, 2002). Intelligence and memory are dependant of each other therefore making them the "the two side of the same coin". A good example is how some people can solve mathematical problems in their heads.
This is because they can quickly retrieve the stored information hence allowing them to solve the problem at hand easily. At the same time this necessarily does not mean they are more intelligent but they have the power to store and retrieve mathematical data in their long term memory aspect. Memory is the most studied cognitive function therefore there are other aspect of the memory that need to be recognized. For the performance of any cognitive task the temporary storage of information can be associated with 'short term memory, primary memory and working memory' of the human memory (Elkind, 2009).
The working memory can be graphically linked to the memory that records the telephone number in the directory book before a person makes any call and the capacity of this working memory is known to decay if not frequently rehearsed. While the long term memory, secondary memory and reference memory are usually associated with the storage of information for longer periods of time. Research shows that the long term memory is very large thus making it unlimited in terms of storage, it mostly stores facts known and those that can be remembered. Its believed that memory is stored in wider sections of the brain instead of a single location. The short term memory can be tested by exposing the test subject to some random digits and make them repeat the digits back immediately (Piaget, 2003). This test has shown that very few people can manage memorizing more than seven digits at a given instance.
Intelligence, Human Memory and Storage
With the rise of artificial intelligence computer scientist have tried comparing the human brain with a program running on the computer. Based on computer hardware properties, approximation of the memory capacity of the brain have been derived by psychologists. By estimating the number of synapses and assuming that each synapse holds a certain number of bits, estimates show that number of synapses can range from 1013 to 1015, corresponding to the memory estimate (Ulrich, 2000). The problem with this form of estimate is it relying on poor estimates of the hardware in the computer systems (Ackerman, 2002). The human brain is known to be highly redundant and not adversely understood thus the existence of a great number of synapses cannot contribute to the memory capacity of the brain.
This same research of the human memory and its storage capabilities show that human beings can remember up to nearly two bits per second of any experimental condition set for them. This form of experiment involves the use of visuals and musicals. The memory capacity estimates show that the human brain is more approachable and from it computer devices can be built that have the skills and abilities of people with the use of les hardware materials. The human intelligence quotient (IQ) can be measured by the use of psychometrics and these tests are commonly used in educational and military settings in order to predict behavior. A person's intelligence quotient and general intelligence tend to be correlated with many social outcomes. Basic example is that of a person with low IQ may end up divorced, arrested and even leave on welfare support while their correspondents with high IQs are usually associated with good income, higher job and even more years of education. Hence the intelligence quotient is the only best predictor of success in a person's performance in his area of work.
As seen the human memory forms a greater part in the growth of the human intelligence, hence for the continual growth of the human intelligence quotient there factors that will need to be maintained and improved in order to ensure the maintenance and growth of the human IQ, these are; Environmental, Fertility, Health, Height, Heritability, longevity and sex factors. These factors have been proven to have a direct correlation with the human intelligence quotient.
Intelligence can be linked to that of animal and humans intelligence and with the understanding of the connection between the human memory and intelligence has enabled researchers to come up with artificial intelligence for computers. Computers are coming in handy, especially in the health, technology, production and construction industries. This has aided machines to portray behavior like reasoning, learning, communication and even decision making (Garlick, 2010). By mastering how the human memory work artificial intelligence has aided the machines to portray the above named characteristic which a very important in ensuring that the machines do meet their functionalities. In summary, analysis of recent research data tend to show that the working memory tend to account for at least the one third of general intelligence portrayed by human beings. What makes the working memory more important is that it requires more active maintenance by providing it with daily information hence this ensure the development and increase of human intelligence (Garry, 2003).