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Two great figures in the history of modern science are Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein. Described as one of the greatest minds of all the time, Newton's contribution to modern science not only gave mathematics and science firm foundations and understanding but also led to deeper insights into physics and the order of nature. Newton's discoveries revolved around theoretical physics, mechanics, the law of gravitation and optics. Newton discovered the Infinitesimal Calculus, the laws of motion, and the laws of gravitational pull. In optics, Newton surprised the science fraternity when he discovered light is composed of component color wavelengths and demonstrated this with the use of a prism (Bronowski, 1975).
Albert Einstein on other hand made significant contributions to the modern science the motion of particles suspended in liquid and photoelectric effect. However, his greatest contribution was marked by the special theory of relativity (Einstein, 1905). The similarity between Newton and Einstein revolved around the manner in which they approached their work. According to Dutch (1998) "another of the theoretical physics giants is Albert Einstein that was also guided by simplicity and elegance in his thinking about physical laws." Both Einstein and Newton contributed to branches of human thought such as physics and mathematics.
Lamarck's evolutionary theory was based on the evolution process through nature involving the gradual transformation of different forms of animals from simple to complex. This is regarded as a much broader comprehensive theory than the organic mutability. The theory was based on the idea that "individuals adapt during their own lifetimes and transmit traits they acquire to their offspring and offspring then adapt from where the parents left off, enabling evolution to advance" (Dutch, 1998). Lamarck advanced that the different forms of animals lost specific capabilities by disuse while acquiring others by exercising. The Lamarckism theory is a conception of evolution that asserts the belief that evolutionary development was a natural extension of organic mutability.
This theory was not particularly satisfactory (or scientific) in trying to account for the origin of species because it was a hypothesis based on acquired characteristics. It points out that "if humankind is able to respond to the environment and direct its evolution, then the questions concerning Natural Selection will be answered" (Stent, 1972). then the creationism theory no longer hold. This has however been proven as Weismann proved that changes in the body during an individual's lifetime do not affect the reproductive cells or the offspring.
Despite strong belief in the application of war to end war as advanced by Cecil Rhodes and Theodore Roosevelt in their expansion strategies remains one of the biggest controversies that have astonishingly failed. This logic is misplaced given the proven fact that war only contributes to the onset of another war. There is no logic behind the application of violence to end violence. This is because the assumed end to a war may breed deep-rooted suspicion and unsustainable peace. The responsibilities that maintaining "peace" require the arrival at the position that realizes the objectives of the parties at war. In addition to the above, it requires protection, sustainability, and maintenance.
Powers bestowed on countries with superior military powers must only be exercised to the protection of the people. The example of the current situation in Iraq demonstrates a vivid example on how destructive the use of war to end war can be in long term. The power that Rhodes and Roosevelt describe fails its positive role when exercised within the margins of personal gains. Diplomatic solutions that seek to offer the best solutions to parties in conflict remain the best options in ending a conflict and achieving sustainable peace.