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At present time, there have been quite very little agreements made among scientists questioning genetic and origins of geographical locations of Native Americans. Only a few years ago, scientists finally agreed that on the remarkable similarities that were physical that were found between Indians who are Americans and native persons in the population in Asia to the northeast, Acosta suggested that the Native Americans came from Asia. It was stipulated that a number of small hunter groups were forced to move from their Asiatic home that may have followed beasts across Asia into America (Gienapp & Lytle, 1562).
The Native Americans are believed to have crossed into North America by walking and going through and across bridge of land that is now sub-merged or made their way using a boat, coasting along the bridge land on the southern edge. Any time, the glaciers reached the maximum extent water of a large amount being drawn out of the ocean and caused lowering world most areas for sea levels up to around 330 feet lower the today's levels. A low lying land that acted a s abridge stood at the Bering strait, the Bering sea at the North, Anadyr gulf and ocean of southern arctic that is now separated by Alaska and north Asia. Beringia as now known is the landmass that most archeologists believe had provided access majorly from Asia to Americas for ancestors who were the first Americans.
Gienapp & Lytle (1562) states that most scientists believe that the Native Americans who were the first to cross to North America did so by either walking across a land bridge that has now submerged, which is at the coast along the southern age of the land bridge. During the Ice ages there were large continental glaciers which had formed over the northern part of North America. When the bridge land was exposed, environment in Beringia was a range of woodlands to marshes to bogs tundra and steppe with cold winters that were long and brief summers that were warm and also wind. Animals grazed on the plains of Bengaria in search of unending food cycles from east to West. These animals included caribou, the horses, large mammoths, elks, and wild sheep and even giant bixon which are believed to have been followed them over grass the sage and cold tundra planes and hunted by bands living in the North East Asia. The game flesh could have acted as could have given them food, hides for shelter and clothing, and dung maybe used as firewood.
Fagan (2005) states that Native Americans hunted, gathered, fished, farming and raised animals that were domesticated. Farming was the main activity on the eastern part on Northern America, the South East and Northeast. Hunting prevailed elsewhere and fishing was done at the coastal areas and the Southwest which was dry, gathering was dominant. The women were to be instructed on how to be planter-gatherers, who had to possess survival skills for the life of the wilderness. In farming though the men aided women in clearing land it was the women's work to do all the labor in agriculture that is weeding and cultivating also harvesting corn, squash and the beans' hunting and picking berries that were wild, nuts and fruits. The men on the other hand hunted in the early summer, fall and in the spring for game.
From the map of Gutierrez, Native Americans are marked by half naked men on land that are carrying bows, spears and arrows and others are roasting meat who have wooden sticks to the North at then called Tierra de Patagones and to the South East of North America then called regio de Brazil (Fagan, 2005). They live a nomadic life as there are no signs of colonization as they live under trees and use old tools for hunting and the way they cook their food. There are structures built on land at all to show that they lived in houses.
Europeans were strengthened by the area which the Native Americans lived by being near a water body and water flow for fishing, trade, food (meat being roasted) and fertile land for agriculture. Through this the Europeans claimed sovereignty as would have an area that was productive for all their needs for example trade, farming and even agriculture.
The French coat of arms and Spanish coat of arms in the upper left corner represents the treaties that were signed by France and Spain, also France and England which created peace to Europe in 1559. Hence on the map may be considered that the French and Spanish were close because of the treaties signed but which still remained silent in a large way on their relations on the broader Atlantic world (Woods & Woods, 2008). The French coat and Spanish coat of arms act as a symbol of togetherness and peace between both countries as that binds them to the agreement that they have a signed and had to honor.
The Spanish and Portuguese had a competition to see who would remain masters of the navigation of the deep ocean and of the new world Atlantic. Based on the well known myriad reports which were from navigators from the sea, they had maps for example the 1562 print that largely grew with a great increase in the accuracy and it therefore became an important tool for exploration, policies in colony, and diplomacy in imperial. The Portuguese coat of arms represents the fact that they stood firm after the competition for the waters and hence ruled the ocean Australis. The competition went on for a while and at the end the Portuguese came out top and held their ground in owning and mastering the deep sea without any other people having to claim that they want to have a part of the deep sea for share or for grabs.