Free Chromium Picolinate Supplements Essay Sample
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Chromium Picolinate is an important natural supplement that activates sensitivity in insulin in regulating of sugar levels in the body. While Insulin is described as a hormone used by the body to change the sugar, starches, with other food energy required in daily life. There is a strong relationship between diabetes, Chromium status, as well as associated pathologies. The adults type 2 diabetic patients need chromium supplements according to different researchers in reduction of blood sugar levels and also some amounts of insulin that diabetic people require. However, it is also non-functioning to other patients.
Research Methods and Design
After evaluation of different subjects with type 2 diabetes, the subjects were then put in baseline. Then they were placed on sulfonylurea (glipizide gastrointestinal therapeutic system 5 mg/day) with a placebo for about three months. After which the subjects were randomized in double-blind fashion so as to receive either on a sulfonylurea with placebo. The insulin sensitivity, body composition and the glycemic control were both determined at baseline after the end of three months single-blind placebo phase.
The main strategy used to improve metabolic control in the type 2 diabetes patients consists of modification in lifestyle and combination with pharmacological intervention. Nevertheless, some alternative strategies like nutritional supplementation with over counter agents are widely practiced by large number of the patients. Furthermore, the patients frequently undertake the strategies without informing the medical provider. Unfortunately, there is considerable controversy that exists regarding the use of the dietary supplements in subjects with type 2 diabetes for efficacy data; many supplements contain uncontrolled studies with anecdotal reports. It is noted that only a little study propose that chromium picolinate may lower the risk of insulin resistance therefore good for type 2 diabetes. On the other hand, some researchers argue that chromium picolinate’s ability to increase sensitivity of insulin in adult type 2 diabetic patients is uncertain. Some cases of chromium toxicity has been reported happening in people uncovered to airborne chromium compounds in industrial settings since inorganic chromium is badly absorbed and oral intake would be essential to attain the toxic levels. The research of chromium picolinate supplements show damages in DNA cells in animals.
Chromium Picolinate Supplements
Research has shown that chromium supplements help reduce the blood sugar levels, as well as the amount of insulin diabetes people need. People with type 2 diabetes have better HbA1c values when they took chromium picolinate. This chromium picolinate is more effective than placebo since HbA1c values act as an indicator to measure long term control of blood sugar levels. Additionally, they also have better fasting blood glucose levels, which is a measure of short term control of blood sugar levels. Insulin is a special cell secreted in the pancreas so that to increase blood sugar level mostly after meal. It binds the insulin receptors on the surface of the cells, which activate the receptors and stimulate the uptake of glucose by the cells. Moreover, it provides cells with glucose for energy and blood glucose level is being prevented from becoming elevated. Metabolism of fat and protein is also influence by the insulin. Type 2 diabetes comes as a result of a decreased in insulin sensitivity. It is characterized by elevated blood glucose level and insulin resistance. Mostly, blood glucose levels are higher than normal but lower than those patient who have accepted to be diagnosis for diabetes. Statistics shows that about 25% to 30% of individuals with impaired glucose tolerance suddenly develop type 2 diabetes. A dose of about 200mcg/day for two to three months of chromium Picolinate supplementation has being found to be beneficial. Despite all, chromium has being found to have no effects on insulin concentration in nondiabetic individuals. Chromium picolinate is more bio available than other supplemental forms of chromium and, therefore, it could be more efficacious.
Many researchers have reported how the chromium picolinate has improved the muscle sensitivity to the insulin obese. According to Lamson4 and Pohl5, insulin resistance mainly occurs when fat tissue and muscle react very poorly to insulin hormone that is responsible for the metabolism of glucose. This condition is observed mainly by both the pre-diabetics and the ones with fully developed diabetes. Previous research shows that chromium supplements enhances the sensitivity of insulin through the improvement of receptor signaling, nevertheless, these is limited to in vitro studies. Moreover, some of the commercial organizations promoted chromium picolinate as body aid development for the athletes and as a way of losing weight. However, a number of different researches have failed in demonstrating the effects of chromium picolinate on either fat loss or muscle growth. Furthermore, other researchers claim that picolinate form of the chromium supplementation aims in the reduction of insulin resistance particularly in the diabetics, but also the meta-analysis of the chromium supplementation studies that showed no association between glucose and chromium or concentration of insulin on non-diabetics and inconclusive results for diabetics.
The same study was challenged on grounds that it excluded significant results. There was mixed results after subsequent trials, in the first finding, no effect was observed on people with impaired glucose tolerance while another resulting to small improvement in the glucose resistance. The other studies on the obese adults with metabolic syndrome published in 2009 finding no significant effect on the sensitivity of insulin and increase the short-term levels of insulin. Also after the observation, there was no effect on the weight and serum lipids. After the trials produced mixed results, it was again concluded that chromium supplements does not have effect on healthy people. However, slight improvement in the metabolism and diabetics was observed although authors state that the evidence for this effect remains weak. Initial concerns raised that chromium picolinate is likely to cause DNA damage and also mutation than the other forms of the trivalent chromium but the results are also debated.
How Chromium Picolinate Functions on Type 2 Diabetic Patients
Chromium picolinate participates in the glucose metabolism through enhancing insulin effects. This happens when one has just taken a meal. Having taken the meal, specialized cells react to increase in blood glucose levels. When insulin binds to insulin receptors on the surface of cells, there occurs a chain reaction whereby receptors are activated hence stimulating the uptake of glucose by the cells.
Ryan6 agrees that, Chromium Picolinate is believed to assist the body in processing carbohydrates and fats. Chromium picolinate is one of the most available forms of chromium because it is easily absorbed form. High concentrations of chromium picolinate harm cells (sterns, PhD 1995) like DNA. The useful part is that chromium picolinate improves blood sugar control in patients with diabetes type 2. It is also used for polycystic ovary syndrome, depression, reducing bad cholesterol and raising suitable cholesterol in people taking heart medication. Other people take chromium for weight loss, reducing fats in the body and increase muscle. It is also used to boost energy and improve athletic performance.
Through this interaction with insulin receptor cells, cells are able to acquire glucose which in turn provides energy and also helps in regulating the blood sugar levels. In addition to glucose metabolism, insulin also has a great effect in the metabolism of fats and proteins. This particular metabolism is so crucial to the body to the effect that any defect normally led to type 2 diabetes. This occurs when the body has, what is scientifically referred to as ‘an impaired glucose tolerance’, a situation in which the body has a defective response to insulin. One of the major characteristics of type 2 diabetes, also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is an unusual elevation of blood glucose levels in the body. Whereas the exact biological structure of chromium is not yet fully understood, recent research appears to show that a substance known as LMCWr or low-molecular-weight-chromium- binding-substance helps in increasing the response of the insulin receptor to insulin. So how does this process occur?
First, by binding insulin, the inactive form of insulin is converted into active form. This stimulates the movement of chromium into the cell which then leads to the binding of chromium to apoLMWr, which is basically a form of LMWC that is devoid of chromium. After binding with chromium, the LMWCr then proceeds to bind to the insulin receptor, a process that largely helps in improving its tyrosine kinase activity. Chromium content is extremely crucial to LMWCr since this is what enables it to stimulate the insulin receptors.
Anderson1, Bloedon, Boston and Serena agree that, in a situation where insulin levels drop due to normalization of blood glucose levels, the LMWCr is released so as to curtail its effects. Moreover, some recent research has shown that by increasing ‘insulin stimulated translocation of glucose transporters’ to the cell membrane, chromium is able to enhance insulin action. Studies have also shown that when vitamin C is taken at the same time, there is a subsequent enhancement of chromium Picolinate uptake in animals. A vivid example is that of three women who have taken 100gm of vitamin C alongside 1mg of chromium Picolinate, led to an increase in plasma levels of chromium as opposed to one mg of chromium devoid of vitamin C. It has also been found that diets rich in simple sugars results in chromium excretion among adults in comparison to foods rich in complex carbohydrates such as whole grains while athletes suffer from chromium deficiency after strenuous exercises.
In 2003 there was a new clinical study that uncovered the mechanism in which chromium picolinate enhances insulin sensitivity. According to Wang7 and Cefaulu , the results of the new double-blind randomizing the placebo that controlled human trial of the people with type 2 diabetes that revealed potential mechanism which explained chromium picolinate ability in improving the human skeletal muscle and primary site for the metabolism of glucose. These results suggest that chromium picolinate is present in the diet while insulin sensitivity grows to the people who have type 2 diabetes, a chronic disease that affecting more than 194 million people in the world according to Dr. William from the University Of Vermont College Of Medicine in USA.
Disease Type 2 Treatment
According to Anderson1 Insulin physiological effects are reduced because chromium Picolinate is known to enhance the action of insulin despite the fact that the level of diabetics may be higher than the healthy individual. Type 2 diabetes has higher rates of chromium loss than individuals who are healthy. Individuals with type 2 diabetes have not shown improvement in blood glucose control, though they provide some evidenced of improved blood lipid and reduced insulin levels. People who are older tend to have high concentration of chromium in sweat, hair and urine. Most individuals who are type 2 diabetes are associated with serious problems hence they need to seek high-dose chromium Picolinate supplementation.
The study elaborates on how CrPic supplementation in the subjects with type 2 diabetes taking sulfonylurea agents which improves the sensitivity of insulin and glucose regulation. Further, CrPic supplementation is significantly attenuated with body weight gain and the visceral accumulation of fats that are compared with the placebo group.