Free Internet TV in Distributed System Essay Sample
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Internet is the name given to electronic network of computer and computer networks, which are interconnected throughout the world for purposes of sharing resources. The internet has provided homage and a platform for many users to interact and share ideas by use of the WWW services. The internet has evolved from a client/server based web server application to an infrastructure that uses more decentralized applications through which the users are able to contribute more at various locations in the web.
More than a billion people in worldwide use internet for various purposes some of which include: e-commerce activities, e-learning, social networking, for experimental researches, e-business and workplaces. The internet wave has grown massively over the past three decades from being used by the military defense and scholarly research but has evoked wide range of uses. It has provided an opportunity for creativity and innovation for new communication technologies such as the internet television, Ethernet technologies, distributed systems and satellite technologies. (Perset, 2008)
A distributed system is a collection of autonomous computers linked by a computer network that appear to the users of the system as a single computer. The distributed should be scalable in order to allow easy expansion of the structure. Some of the distinct features of a distributed system include;
It should hide communication between its users. Operation of each user should be kept distinct and separate from others, every user to see what is pertinent to them. Secondly, the distributed system should be scalable. The system should expand and accommodate increased number of users and resources required. There should be no loss in performance of the distributed system because of increased number of users and resources.
Thirdly, it should be uniform and flexible. This means that it should have distributed applications and be easy to easy to implement, install and debug new services into the system. Fault tolerance is a key issue in a distributed system.it should detect errors in the system much faster in order to prevent collision within the system. (George Coulouris, 2005)
The above model shows how online viewers from Spain, Australia and US are able to access live stream audio and videos globally via computer network connections. The distributed database provides access to online content and stores the video drama shows awaiting view by the online viewers. Incoming videos and audio files from third party are stored within the distributed databases awaiting view by customers. The internet provides an infrastructure where the client can be able to view the contents. It provides an online interface to which the viewer applications are able to access the services of the main servers. The client's side is ensured favorable response from the request he sent to the web servers.
In order to facilitate high quality downloads for its viewers while at the same time minimizing the bandwidth cost our organization should implement various technologies in place. Bit torrent is one such technology that provides an efficient and scalable means of downloading large sized video and audio content. It has the capacity of allowing huge video and audio files download much quickly and efficiently without overwhelming the server. This enables the viewers to download from many sources at much faster rates. The bit torrent bandwidth is less costly to the ISP and therefore able to be incorporated within the organization due to low expenses incurred by our organization.
Another technology to be used is the podcast. Podcast is used to post audio materials on the website and is made available for downloading by its viewers so that they can listen to them. The cost of implementing the podcast is very cheap and the quick download is ensured by the technology. Most film organization use the podcast technology as it offers best means to which they can post audio files to there viewers at various charges. We also may upload previews of the videos and audio on online websites such as you tube and provide links to where the viewers can download full content.
Consequently, in order to ensure that each user is allocated guaranteed download of movie and audio files there is need to control the traffic on the bandwidth. This helps provide preferential treatment to user applications so that there never occurs instances where a user application is denied from fully viewing the contents of a video or audio. Caching is also used to accelerate the delivery of contents as well as optimizing the use of bandwidth within the network. Use of caches provides an illusion to the user application that the bandwidth performs much faster than it initially was performing. Proxy caches are thus implemented in the system to enable faster retrieval of files previously used with the same machine
To enhance the uniformity view by the users in the distributed system the software stack of the distributed system is divided into two layers. They include the application layer and the middle ware. The application layer is responsible for provision of a user interface for the users while the middleware layer works in conjunction with the underlying computer systems and the network systems to provide similar view to all its viewers. To ensure smooth transition between exposing commissioned work of our organization and the third party's content we should implement the following measures before engaging into an agreement in order to ensure maximized benefits of the project.
Firstly, the process carried out should be legal. We should ensure that the third party complies fully with the accepted standards of law within the country. They should be licensed for publicizing its contents on the websites. Moreover, engaging in activities in accordance to the law shows transparency in our operations. We should institute a memorandum that spells out the policies to be followed by each of us. Rights and duties are also shown in the memorandum to avoid instances of failure to perform one's obligation. Repercussions and consequences are also available for failure to comply with documented policies.
Secondly, each of the us should have there own middleware layer so as to offer different services to the consumers. The middle ware layer is beneficial in a number of ways in that it provides a series of capabilities that ease the work of programmer to develop applications. Moreover, it provides platform independent API therefore, it allows multiple user platforms within the distributed system (A.Bernstein, 1993).
Middle ware service is independent on the distributed system in that it can run in various platforms and therefore increases the coverage of applications that depend upon the services of the middleware. Therefore, each platform is tailored to meet the each user's specifications. Our middleware services can be differentiated from that of the third party's services.
In evaluation of the middleware it is important to consider the performance. The applications that do have high performance requirements do not require having high performance middleware. However, despite the beneficial uses of middleware there are arguments against it. First, there are numerous middleware services causing much programming complexity results. This has provided very difficult task for programmers to be able to use it necessitating simplification by selecting very few services that will meet the needs of the platform coverage.
Secondly, they provide the application developer with difficult task in allocation of functions to both the client and server sides of the distributed applications. This creates uncertainties to the design of the system because of poor functionality of the client and the server sides of the distributed system architecture. Thirdly, due to the middleware services using the APIs, which are dependent on a single vendor, they have experienced criticism, as they cannot be used on any other platforms by the system. This limits the use of the system by more than one customer.
Depending on what type of architecture to be used the security measures to be enforced are vital. Consistency of the distributed database is of utmost importance. Therefore, there should be extensive use of encryption techniques. The secret keys, password and usernames in accessing the database server by the customers should be implemented. Any vulnerability within our search facility, pay-per-view and subscription may cost our organization greatly. Usability and performance of the system is implemented through use of patch software. Patch software are used to fix bugs and vulnerabilities within the distributed system.
Authorization may also be assisted by the use of certificates. These certificates are digitally signed and kept in the distributed naming service which enables it to have a hierarchical name space. Since our organization acts on behalf of the other third party by providing online interface to the consumers for their content we are given rights through signing of the certificates by both parties. In provision of an online interface to our esteemed viewers and having added responsibility of hosting other firms content onto our website there are benefits which accrue to us in entering into contractual relationships with them. And as a result of the other company joining efforts with us, we benefit from high initial source of capital.
Fees obtained from charging third party results into increased source of capital which enables us accomplish our tasks of paying up expenses from external hosting of the website. There is focused vision of the firm due to dependency by other firms to deliver outstanding services to its consumers. Incase loses are incurred on the online content from various sources, we do not suffer totally from the loss, as the third party organizations will contribute towards the loss.
The disadvantages accruing to our organization as a result of accepting to expose content from other organizations is that, profits incurred in hosting the drama content is shared between the various third party companies and us. Little or no contribution is put in place by the third party organizations who expect to have a share in the profits.
In addition, consultations and negotiations have to be carried out between both parties as we alone cannot make decision without consultations of the other party. This causes wastage in the time taken for very urgent and important decisions requiring faster implementation. Disagreements may brew up with our organization and the third party organizations which may last for long periods causing dramatic split ups between the groups.
The type of hosting either internal or external usually depends upon the time taken by the firm to host its product in the internet. An organization in its start upstages may opt for external hosting as a source of exposing its contents. Organizations engaged in short term display of their contents would find external hosting as a better option. External hosting is a feasible solution whereby an organization lacks resources to set their internal hosting site. (Chin, 2004) The reason as to why we may require external hosting of the contents is because of variable factors:
The cost of setting up an intranet to provide hosting services is quite expensive. The size of our business limits us to external hosting. Our business being at its start up stages has little capital at its disposal to establish an internal hosting site. External hosting requires less amount of capital there fore leaving it as the only option to explore.
Most of the facilities offered by external hosting such as backups and content management which are costly if we were to implement internal hosting. The content manager provides regular check of updates at the site and provides an easy way to which contents within it can be edited.
This helps one avoid to do web development to make the content updates and also it helps reduce the cost of paying web developers to do the changes on the web pages. The cost of implementing backups is reduced. The external host is able to provide reliable back ups for our content ensuring that our data does not get lost in an event of power loss.
Bandwidth is maximum theoretical transfer of data per second. As a result of expanding our market niche to Spain, Australia and USA this will translate to many people visiting our websites to download the audio and video files on our website. This will require high bandwidth meter for use by the consumers. Therefore, our company is required paying more for the bandwidth. An advantage accrued by buying bandwidth from the external host is that we only pay for the amount of bandwidth we have used.
Benefits that may accrue to our organization as a result of external hosting includes, minimizing of the operation cost incurred by the firm. There is less expenses to cater for due to most expenses being catered for by the external hosting site. It also requires very little capital for establishment of an external host. This is usually the best option for organizations which do not have much capital for investments in hosting of a site.
An already existing hardware infrastructure is put in place. No attention is therefore required to maintain the hardware infrastructure because maintenance services to it are provided by the external host providers. Robustness of the system ensures that the data stored in the server of the external host is kept free from damage and that incase of fire and power surges that occur backups are provided which are usually expensive if we had a self hosting systems. Loss of data within the server is none of the client's fears but the external host. (Chin, 2004)
Disadvantage that may accrue to our organization as a result of external hosting includes, incase of investing in external hosting in the long run the an organization may incur a lot of cost in paying the hosting fees which would not have been incurred if the organization had a self hosting. Therefore, external hosting is suitable during the short run.
There is limited supply of technical services offered by the external host. An organization is not at liberty to control its operations which would otherwise be free in self hosting that allows the client to be able to control its own services. There is lack of security on information by the external host about the client's operation. Highly sensitive information of our organization is at risk of being disclosed to other people, who may use to their advantage by selling the information to our film competitors.
The goal of every organization is to maximize its profit. In view of this, the organizations managers are tasked with the job of making the maximum profit available. Therefore, in order to achieve this the following measures are taken by the organization to enable it from minimizing its cost and maximizing its benefits through:
This involves the separation of activities within the organization into distinct task and the assignment of the various tasks to different people. Every individual within the organization should perform the task designated to them perfectly. Task such as web developing, site maintenance and programming of the site should be performed to perfection. This will in the long run increase the productivity through provision of more content online to its customers. The organization manager is able to boost the sales while at the same time minimizing on cost that would have resulted due to idleness.
Increased efficiency and performance
Our company has the vision of entering foreign markets through expanding the market niche to Spain, Australia and USA by improving the services it offers. Customers would be willing and able to obtain services from us only if the quality of service we offer is to their expectation. Increased efficiency and performance can only be made possible if our organization embraces modernized technology and strategies in the provision of services to its customers. We should provide high quality videos and faster download rates for the videos. Our subscription charges and payment per view should be cost friendly so as to enhance customer loyalty.
The only two ways of ensuring that you achieve the highest possible profits is either through increasing the selling price of your film contents or else reduce the organization operating expenses. While increasing the sales there are some factors that should be put into consideration. If you increase the selling price of video viewing this will discourage it consumers to watch our movies therefore despite the firm wanting to increase the sales figure it should not increase significantly so as to cause suspicion to its customers. The cost incurred in the hosting services of the video and audio should be comparative smaller to the benefits derived. This is in accordance to the profit maximization concept.