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This is an essay on the technological growth in imaging. Imaging is the production of images from a video camera, digitally generated data or from the recording of such images on microfilm, laser disk or videotape (FOLDOC, 2010).  The essay will create a timeline of historical growth in terms of technological advances in radiologic and imaging sciences similar to the timeline created in the Timeline Completion Assignment in Module 1. Radiologic is the application of scientific technology in radiology. It involves X-rays and radioisotopes for purposes of diagnosis and therapy (Sensagent, 2009). The essay will focus on MRI, CT and Ultrasound. The timeline will begin with the original concept of the MRI machine by Raymond Damadian in 1969 and the development of the first NMR machine by Paul Lauterbur in 1971.It will be followed with the development of CT with Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield using funding from EMI records (from Beatles sales) in 1971.Lastly, the timeline will include the first application of ultrasound for medical purposes by Dr. George Ludwig in 1949. The essay will include a timeline of not less than 10 dates. The essay will henceforth project how the technology will evolve to positively influence the imaging sciences.


The original concept of the MRI was conceived and proposed by Damadian in 1969. It was an external whole-body MR scanner for early signs of malignancy. It used the nuclear magnetic resonance.

In 1970, Damadian indentified the quality and duration differences of NMR signals (T1 and T2) between cancer and normal tissue. This confirmed his MR body scanner and hence made the MRI possible.

In 1971, Damadian proposed a voxel-by-voxel scanning method for tumors. In the same year, Lauterbur proposed to use a gradient method which involved the use of magnetic field gradients to scan.

In March 1972, Damadian filed patents for his 3-dimensional voxel-by-voxel scan method. In the same year, Lauterbur submitted a 2-dimensuionalMr scan with 1mm tubes.

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In March 1973, Lauterbur's 2-dimensional image was published (Beyond Discovery, 2009)

In 1974, Garroway, Grannell & Mansfield published a 3-dimenbsional scan. In the same year, Damadian received his patent.

In 1975, Kumar introduced the phase coding.

On May 11, 1977, Damadian and his team produced the first MRI scan of the human body from a prototype known as "Indomitable". The scan provided clear heart, lungs and chest images with no side effects.

In 1978, Damadian founded the FONAR Corporation that produced the world's first commercial MRI machine in 1980 (The Franklin Institute, 2010).

In 1980, the first commercial MRI machine was produced and the phase coding of Aberdeen group achieved a successful spin-warp technique to make MRI images (FONAR, 2003).

FONAR later developed the first whole body MR scanners, First mobile and was approved. Despite the successes, FONAR and others abandoned the indomitable approach and adopted the Lauterbur's.

In 1997, The US High court on US patents enforced Damadian patents on finding no significant difference between the modern MRI's and his discoveries of T1 and T2.

Today, MRI technology has spread to scanning other animals and can even trace a thought in brain research. Damadian is working on a giant MRI machine that will allow scanning of the interior anatomies.

In 1971, the first clinical CT scanner was built and installed by Godfrey Hounsfield (American Medical Informatics Association, 2003). It was successful in scanning a cerebral cyst patient. Scanning technology improved rapidly later on producing two other improved models. The Beatles' success brought a huge significance in the medical world including that of CT scanning. The CT scanner is linked to a computer that compiles the data into a 3-D image. In 1975, Hounsfield built a whole-body scanner (Yasser, 2010)

Ultrasound timeline

In 1949, an American Dr. Ludwig used ultrasound technology to detect gallstones. This provided a foundation for the ultrasound use in medications under the June '49 report.

In 1950 and 1951, Ludwig and his team imaged patients but their results were inconclusive (Woo, 2010). Still in 1951, Joseph Holmes and his team produced the first 2-D B-mode linear compound scanner (Orenstein, 2008)

In 1952, John Reid built the first medical ultra sound diagnostic machine. The machine was used to detect breast cancer tumors.

In 1965, Richard Soldner developed the first real-time ultrasound scanner which enabled pregnant women to see their unborn babies move in the womb.

In 1970, the American Society of Ultrasound Technical Specialists was formed and has continued to advance ultrasound.

In 1984, Kazunori developed the first 3-D ultrasound machine.

In the 1990's, the field has produced 3D and 4D images that are easy to interpret.

In the recent times, portable ultrasound models have been created and thus improving their effectiveness. They have also become less expensive (Providian medical equipment, 2010)

With the increased growth in technology, there are bound to be technological advancements in the field of imaging science. I hereby project the discovery of an ultrasound scanner of the brain.  This would further help in treating brain disorders and diseases like cerebral and brain tumors. I similarly project the advancement of the CT scanner to include heart scanning. This will largely support the treatment of heart diseases. I conclusively project that the ongoing research of creating an MRI machine that will scan interior anatomies shall be achieved in due time. The science of imaging and radiology has quite advanced with time. Though the research has been costly, it has helped the psychiatrists to handle diseases and disorders with ease and certainty. It has also saved lives and necessitated better treatment for the patients.

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