All papers are checked via
|← Impact of Micro Power||Computer Processors →|
Long before the coming of new advanced technologies, almost everything in the world was done manually (without any automated or technological intervention). These days, most people are of the opinion that it took a lot of time and also energy to do some kinds of works, which might even be menial or trivial in nature. It is argued that the time and energy that is wasted in this case could have been channeled and subsequently used in doing other jobs or work. Hence, the need to save time and energy saw the development and integration of technology in some of the things that were initial done manually or the long way.
However, one remarkable technological development of all time is the invention of the internet. According to Abbate (1999), the internet was invented primarily for academic reasons i.e. researchers saw the need to have a way of exchanging their publications at a more convenient way and time. Thus, the internet made it possible for researchers and also other academicians who were very far apart from each other to share academic information simply by sending it or publishing it on the internet. Therefore, instead of the researchers and academicians publishing the information in books, they published it online so that other researchers and academicians can get the information.
As we can note from the above paragraph, the internet, in one way or the other, has got some academic origins. One thing worth noting at this point is that were it not for the invention and subsequent existence of the computer, it would not have been possible to invent the internet (Aspray, 1996). This is so since the computer is the main device that makes it possible to access the internet (even though nowadays there are so many other devices and gadgets other than the computer that can be used to access the internet).All this has been facilitated by the broadband technology.
As the broadband revolution persists, the ever growing competition in the broadband service market is forcing broadband service providers to plan their policies for deliverance of triple play services, with data video and voice, supplied by a single connection. In current years, as the intranets and internet have evolved, escalating necessities for bandwidth intensive appliance such as peer to peer networking and file sharing have led to persistently growing demands for higher broadband speed provisioning (Witten, 2002).
There are a countless of competing technologies which can offer the speed required to offer broadband services, but every technology has its restrictions in terms of reliability, bandwidth, coverage or cost. Optical fibre almost restriction less speed capabilities, has outstanding consistency and is becoming more and more economical to install (George, 2005). As a result fibre seems to be incomparable in its advantage over other broadband technologies. Nevertheless, many competitive wireless and copper technologies are growing at a considerable pace and some technologies have up to now managed to repeatedly meet the ever growing speed requirements of the end user.
The normal broadband technologies in most regions are cable Internet and ADSL. Latest technologies currently in use is VDSL and pushing optical fiber links closer to the subscriber in both cable plants and telephone. Fibre-optic communication, while only lately being used in fiber to the buildings and fibre restrain schemes, has played an important role in facilitating Broadband Internet access by enhancing spread of information over long distances much more lucrative than copper cable technology.
Areas that are not served by ADSL or cable, government organizations have begun to fix wireless networks, and in some areas, the government is installing public Wi-Fi networks. The latest technology being deployed for stationary broadband and mobile access is LTE and WiMAX, and other technologies that are in use take account of fixed wireless, for example the Motorola Canopy.
Since 2005, broadband Internet access on the mobile is more and more available at the consumer level by means of "3G" technologies for instance EV-DO and HSDPA technologies.
It is good to make contrast among various broadband providers and seek around to find the best broadband deals that are available. Additionally if clients are already with a provider and have a broadband that they may desire to contact their current internet service provider initially and make enquiries what new deals they presently have.
It can be quite tiresome to Shop for a broadband service. It all depends on what clients are looking for and the extent of their needs. The following table provides a review of the top 10 UK broadband providers and their packages. It compares the best internet broadband providers and their deals from all the UK.
NAME COST bandwidth
SKY $5 per month unlimited broadband with unlimited downloads 20mbmax unlimited speed
TalkTalk $4.88/month 24mbmax 40gb per month speed
O2 $8.50/month 20mb max 20 GB per month speed
Primus $13/month free for 4 months 20mb max 10 GB per month speed
BT $6.49 20mb max 10 GB per month speed
Plusnet $27.50/month 20mb max Unlimited speed
The following table compares the advantages and disadvantages of the top broadband internet providers in UK
NAME advantages disadvantage
The router is included for free.
Very fast download speeds connection drops sometimes
poor support and procedures
TalkTalk - Free overnight usage (midnight-8am).
Fixed monthly cost • Possible teething troubles for new customers
O2 - No traffic shaping or port blocking.
UK-based technical support Connected all the time which increases power usage.
Primus Super fast broadband speeds - up to 24Mbps..
- UK's only customisable broadband services.
- Ideal for every home user! Dependant on your exchange being unbundled, lack of ports, high demand
BT It has a fast bandwidth
Broadband options come with easy use and an online storage to help protect precious documents.
It uses the existing phone line Anytime the connection is lost will result to loss of access to sites running in the server
Plusnet Award-winning UK-based support available 24/7.
- Fast broadband speeds - up to 8Mbps.
- Free wireless 4-Port router available. 20mb max Unlimited speed
A local area network offers networking ability to a group of computers that are close to each other such as in an a school, office building, or a home. A Local area network is helpful for sharing resources like printers, files, games or other applications. A LAN often connects with other LANs, WANs and to the Internet.
Most local area networks are built with comparatively cheap hardware such as network adapters, Ethernet cables, and hubs. Wireless LAN and other more superior LAN hardware options are available.
Dedicated operating system software is used to configure a LAN network. For instance, most Microsoft Windows flavors offer a software package called Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) that help in controlling access to LAN resources.
Most LANs connect personal computers and workstations. Each individual computer in a local area network has its own CPU with which it carries out programs, but it also is able to access devices and data anywhere on the LAN. Consequently, users can share data as well as costly devices, such as printers. Users are also able to use LAN to converse with each other, by engaging in chat sessions and sending e-mail. Ethernet is among the different types of LANs that is used in common personal computers.
The following distinctiveness distinguishes one LAN from another:
• protocols : The encoding and rules qualifications for sending data. The protocols decide whether the network uses client/server or a peer-to-peer architecture.
• Topology : The arithmetic arrangement of devices on the network. for instance, devices can be arranged in straight line or a ring.
• media : Devices can be connected by coaxial cables, twisted-pair wire, or fiber optic cables. Other networks do devoid of connecting media altogether via radio waves.
LANs are able to transmit data at very fast rates, much faster than data is transmitted over a cell phone line; but the distances are restricted, also, there is a limit on the number of computers that can be connected to a single LAN. Ethernet LAN is the most common type of local area network. A home LAN with the smallest LAN can have roughly two computers; a large LAN can hold many thousands of computers. Most of the LANs are divided into groups called subnets. Theoretically, A Class A LAN can hold more than 15 million devices structured into subnets. The following diagram illustrates a LAN network (George, 2007).
WAN protocols are the technologies or protocols that determine the resourceful performance of WANs. These have a reflective impact on production continuity, a key factor for an organization. The following is a concise outline of some of the main protocols (Stephenson, 2001).
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a protocol enables packet switching and encoding of data traffic into small encoded sized cells. It is based on connection-oriented technology. It works by establishing two end points between virtual circuits (Derek, 1995). Broadband Access protocol: is one of the most recognized WAN protocols because of its high data transmission rate.
Frame Relay protocol is solely for internetworking LANs, that is, broadcasting of data between WANs and LAN end points. A cost-efficient technique, frame relay is broadly used by network providers as an encapsulation technique for data and voice, and is used in LANs across a Wan.
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is used to connect two work stations directly across cellular phone, telephone line, serial cables, trunk line, fiber optic links or exclusive radio links. Point-to-point protocol is extensively used by clientele for dial-up access to the Internet.
Some of the most common LAN protocols are "Token Ring" Fiber Distributed Data Interface," (FDDI) and Ethernet," The most common type of LAN protocol is Ethernet. It is found in offices and homes throughout the world and is identifiable by its common "CAT5" copper wire medium (George, 2007) It uses a hub or a switch to which all the systems are connected to exchange data.
In a Token Ring protocol, all work stations are connected to form a ring and each computer can directly hear broadcasts only from its immediate neighbor. Consent to transmit is approved by a token that circulate around the ring. The following diagrams illustrate the different types of LAN protocols available. The diagrams focus on the devices used in Token Ring/IEEE 802.5, Ethernet/IEEE 802.3, and Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) (Stephenson, 2001).
The knowledge of protocols is applied through various ways in communication systems. The information and data exchanged between any communications medium is administered by conventions or rules that can be set out in a technological specification known as a communication protocol standard. The actual data exchanged, the nature of the communication are defined by the specification.
Communicating systems communicate with each other using shared transmission media, since there is no common memory. Broadcasting is not necessarily reliable and can involve different operating systems and hardware on different systems.
To put into practice a networking protocol, its software components are interfaced with a frame put into operation on the machine's operating system. This structure implements the networking functionality of the operating system. The most known frameworks are the OSI and TCP/IP model.
There are various advantages of cheap broadband internet providers for instance, they facilitate for flexible ecological working practices. Working while seated at the comfort of your seat at home greatly reduces teleconferencing and commuter miles. , When looking for cheap broadband internet providers one ought to certainly compare the advantages and disadvantages of the broadband.
Technological advances may outwit the tribulations in the future and make broadband more affordable and accessible. Broadband has turned out to be essential in trade and industry activities of a country. Its existence is an imperative tool to estimate a country's ability to be connected, with it and with the outside world. Broadband is not an alternative, but the only choice