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Information system is a combination of people’s activities and information technology (IT) that make use of current technology to support operations. It is mostly used to refer to the interaction of people, processes, algorithms, technology and data. It also refers to how IT is applied to support the growth of their business enterprises. In other words, it’s a collection of softwares, hardwares, data, people and procedures that are devised to generate activities that support the activities done.
Types of information systems
There are basically five types of information system
i)Office information system- this is a network connection that facilitate the flow of information among employees and their managers, the employees execute their tasks electronically through their electronic devices and computers rather than manually. It supports a variety of business activities such as document design and distribution, information transfer, accounting and finance among others.
ii)Transaction processing system- this is a system that captures and process the data generated as a result of the daily activities of an organization. These activities include such as, orders, deposits, payments, reservations among others. The system confirms an action and triggers a response such as sending, printing or issue of a receipt. It also removes or changes in the existing data and maintains a record of transactions.
iii)Management information system- this evolves out of transaction processing system. It usually generates accurate, organized and timely information. It is also known as management reporting system as it reports about the business on regular basis. Using this system, the managers produce a report that recaps the daily sales of the company customers list and also give a graphical representation of each product performance.
iv)Decision support system- this is designed to help users of the information reach a decision. Users usually need information that help them make decisions that are not available in the reports. It uses both internal and external data sources. Some of these systems include query language, spreadsheets, data analysis and graphics, while others allow the creation of a model that help in knowing the factors that affect decisions.
v)Expert systems- is used to capture and store the understanding of human experts that is then used to copy human reasoning and decision making practice to those with no such expertise. This system can as well be used for decision making but its specifically designed for non managerial employees. It has also been used in application of human intelligence in the computer (Bocij, Greasley and Hicki, 2009).
Application of information system
The use of robot in the workplace has today turned to be part of the operations of each and every organization that want to make use of modern technology. This mostly applies to commercial and industrial firms to cheaply perform some tasks. These equipments have been equipped with high level intelligence that make them perform human activities with just a little effort. Modern robots are fitted with sensitivity gadgets that help them make decision as their operating environment changes (Stair, Reynolds and Reynolds, 2008). The information system fitted with the robot is the expert system.
The Microsoft office window is used in major office operations on the daily activities of an organization. This is a good example of office information system.
The use of decision making (DSS) software has of late been a common practice. It is designed to help managers make proper decisions that are based on a combination of data, personal knowledge and data. It also identifies and solves problems that may arise in the course of business operations. This is a decision support system example (Shearman, 2006).
Upgrading the computers information system is thus of major importance to the organization. This assists in keeping the computers up to date so that the company can have competitive advantage over other firms. Due to the growth in computer networking, there are less of barriers between the employees, management, suppliers and customers. A good communication system enables the keeping of proper statistical data employees, organize operations, coordinate activities and even sell over the internet.