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A distributed system refers to a collection of self-sufficient computers connected by a computer network and operational with distributed system software. The software makes it to be possible for computers to coordinate their activities and use collectively resources of a software, system hardware and data. There are four key goals of distributed systems. A distributed system should easily connect users to resources it should conceal the fact that resources are distributed across a network. The distribution system should also be open and eventually scalable. The most fundamental objective of a distribution system is to make it easy for users to reach inaccessible resources and use them with other users in a restricted way.
Resources are shared because of economics. The linking of users and resources makes it easier to collaborate and exchange information as illustrated by the success of the internet and its ordinary procedure of exchanging many things. Transparency is another goal of a distributed system where the system should hide the fact that its resources and processes are characteristically distributed across many computers. The system should also grow with time, if bottlenecks like a single mail server, single URL book are solved. Advantages of computing systems include incremental growth where computing power can be added in small increments.
There is reliability in using distributed system; this is if one machine crashes the whole system still survives. Distributed systems have high speed than the mainframe. Since distributed systems are an open system, they have an advantage over self-contained system. The disadvantages of distribution systems include inherent security issue, when the network is flooded; the problem of transmission arises. Troubleshooting and diagnosing of problems in distribution systems can be hectic, because the analysis may require connection between nodes. Real world distributed system benefit an organization since there are reduced costs in supervision because an individual can control employees through the autonomous computers.
Automotive system a real time distributed system faces security risks such as exploits, eavesdropping, social engineering and human error, denial of service attack, indirect attacks and direct access attacks. An exploit refers to a procedure of commands that take advantage of software in order to cause unexpected behavior to happen on computer software or a computerized electronic. Eavesdropping refers to the act of sneakily listening to a private conversation, characteristically between hosts on a network. Additionally, computers that function without contact to the external environment can be eavesdropped through monitoring the faint electronic-magnet transmissions generated by hardware. A computer system is not well secured than the human systems handling its operation.
Mean individuals have repeatedly penetrated well designed and secure computer systems by taking the recklessness of trusted individuals or by deliberately cheating them. An example of the tricks used is sending of messages claiming to be system administrators wanting passwords. The deception of sending such messages is known as social engineering. Another risk is the denial of service attack that is unlike other exploits used to gain illegal access or administration of a system. Denial of service attack is an exploit used in rendering the system useless. Attackers can deny service to individual victims, through doing acts like entering of a wrong password repeatedly and thus causing the system to be locked.
Denials of service attack are on the rise, and it is extremely difficult to avoid because the operation of all networks needs analysis, not just the behavior of small code pieces. Distributed -denial -of service attacks are also common, where a greater number of compromised hosts used as a botnet with something like a Trojan is used to saturate a target system with network requests thus trying to render it unusable. An indirect attack is an invasion launched by a third party computer this makes the tracking of an actual attacker exceedingly difficult. To reduce these vulnerabilities like eavesdropping, which are of more likelihood to happen in the company, can be prevented through means of cryptography.
The method of cryptography uses a pair of key codes, securely distributed which are used once to code and make sense of a message. Social engineering and actual attacks can be prevented by only non-computer means, which can be extraordinarily difficult to enforce relative to the vitality of the information. To protect the system, there is necessity to adhere to the ideal concept of prevention, detection and response. The automotive real time distributed system requires computers and other resources. A conference of a week should be convened to caution employees on carelessness with the system and consequences spelt out clearly.
The company needs a human machine interface, where an operator can operate the system. There are also computers required, which will cost the $2000, the control room and employees desks that will cost $1500. The software will cost $3000 and salaries for employees monthly are; customer care $1000, order tracking and delivery to cost $1200, the supervisor takes $1500 and employees with the responsibility of updating available products will cost the company $1000. The benefits to accrue from this system include the computers will be an asset, and there will be no costs incurred with their usage. However, the company needs to set aside$100 for repairs when the computer gets damages. The desks will improve employee morale and hence quality services, which will translate, to high sales.
The costs for implementing the system will cost $12500, while the benefits to be realized by the company include convenience since when one break down other computers will keep working. Updating of products monthly will translate to sales of $1500, which is higher than the money spent in paying updating personnel. The automotive distributed real time system is up to date and therefore, there will be no technological constraints if the company adopts the system.
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