Three problems facing Ghana
The Republic of Ghana is found in the West coast region of Africa. Contrary to the neighboring countries, which are French-speaking countries, Ghana stands out to be an English-speaking nation. The population of Ghana is approximately 25 million, with most of people concentrated in the urban cities such as Accra and Kumasi. Despite the political stability in Ghana in the recent years, there are still major problems that the Republic of Ghana faces (Kwame, 2007). This essay attempts to investigate the three significant problems that Ghana as a country faces.
The first significant problem that Ghana faces is the increasing levels of poverty. Just like many other African nations, Ghana suffers extreme poverty levels that are due to increasing levels of hunger and disease outbreaks. Most of the people in Ghana practice small-scale farming as means of livelihood. Reports indicate that approximately 60 per cent of the Ghanaian population relies on subsistence farming as a means of meeting their daily basic needs ( International Monetary Fund, 2007). Despite Ghana being the most politically stable country in the West African region, the problem of rural poverty is still rampant in the country, especially in the northern region. This is due to income disparities and economic inequalities among people living in areas that are prone to drought and famine. The significant factor responsible for causing poverty among the people of Ghana is inequality in the distribution of national resources. This is widely evident because people in the southern Ghana have more economic opportunities compared to their counterparts found in the northern region of the country (Ninsin, 2009). Ghanaian government reports reveal that the primary cause of poverty in the rural areas of Ghana is that there is low productivity in terms of agricultural produce and that the markets for agricultural produces are not functioning optimally. Lack of farming technologies and required farm inputs such as fertilizer is one of the significant factors that accelerate rural poverty levels in Ghana. This implies that lack of proper agricultural productivity implies that the country is in the verge of facing the problem of food insecurity. It is evident that the poverty prevalence is a significant issue that is responsible for causing other serious problems in Ghana (Ninsin, 2009).
The second significant problem that Ghana faces is increasing population in urban areas, which in turn hinders urban development. One of the major issues that hinder Ghana’s development is the inclining urbanization rates, which subsequently impairs effective urban planning, development and management strategies ( International Monetary Fund, 2007). Increasing levels of rural-to-urban migration in Ghana has resulted increasing levels of socio-economic problems in the urban regions of the country. This has in turn impaired the establishment of urbanization policies for urban settlement. There are diverse problems associated with increasing rural to urban migration in Ghana. One such problem is the increasing crime levels associated with increasing levels of unemployment in the urban centers. Diverse social problems such as increasing rates of HIV/AIDS prevalence also form one of the social problems that affect Ghana as a country. In addition, increasing urban population is bound to cause environmental problems ( International Monetary Fund, 2007). The provision of social services in the urban regions is due to increasing population in the urban regions. Social services such as education, health provision, and security face significant impairments are people are constantly migrating from the rural areas to the urban areas. The situation worsened further by poor urban planning and development strategies and policies that make it difficult to implement settlement policies in the urban centers. Another significant problem associated with increasing migration into the urban areas is will affect agriculture in the rural areas, since there will be few people in the rural areas to practice agriculture, yet it is the backbone of the economy of Ghana (Kwame, 2007).
The third significant problem that Ghana is facing is the provision of education. There is disparity in education in terms of regions and gender. Education in the rural areas is still a major problem because most of the children in rural areas of Ghana are out of school. The girl-child education is also a significant problem in the education system of Ghana. This implies that the central government has the responsibility of eliminating the disparities in the education system. The disparity in the Ghanaian is also responsible for the increasing levels of HIV/AIDS among young girls in Ghana (Kwame, 2007). The lack of quality education is also a major problem in the education system in Ghana, especially in the rural areas.
Education in Ghana suffers significant political influence; this is evident when the government overlooks important political decisions at the expense of educational policies. Government reports indicate that girl-child education is poor especially in the northern region of Ghana. The government funding towards the improvement of quality of education is minimal, as a result, there are significant deficiencies in the education system such as teaching resources and adequate number of schools that can accommodate the Ghanaian school-going children. This implies that the government should put more emphasis on improving quality of education through the elimination of disparity in the education system and the deployment of adequate funding in the education sector (Ninsin, 2009).
In conclusion, the most significant problems that face Ghana currently are increasing poverty, increasing urban population resulting to poor urban planning and management, and ultimately disparities in the education system. The Ghanaian government should therefore put more emphasis towards the development of strategies and policies that aim at the solution of the highlighted problems ( International Monetary Fund, 2007).