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Reputation is very important when one needs to know whom to trust and what judgments can be made about a reason. The reputation of three characters in the play Othello by Shakespeare plays important role in determining the eventual results of the play. The end results of the play would have been different if Iago had not been known as a honest person or Othello not being a noble military man and also if Cassio's reputation had not been tarnished. Iago himself states that, "reputation is an idle and most false imposition, often got without merit and lost without deserving" (Havoc, par.7). Reputation would bring about good judgment, both in the decisions made and those others makes about a given character. A hero is someone who confronts issues beyond the social rules, who in their physical journey encounters fundamental conditions of life and understands
The 'Epic of Gilgamesh' covers every aspect of great epic literature, that is fantastic geographies and exotic characters; tiresome quests and hard journeys; victorious battles with monsters, supernatural beings and natural forces. Literatures have been used throughout history of civilization to express a variety of cultural issues. The episode of "Mesopotamian Noah," as is evident with, the character Utnapishtim, who was advised to build a great boat and fill it with animals and his family to escape flooding, has been related to biblical 'Noah' and therefore the 'Epic of Gilgamesh' has received biblical critics (eNotes.com, par.1). The social structure and values of society can be seen throughout the actions of Gilgamesh and his people. This epic brings forth the perception of the ancient Sumerian and Babylonian cultures. Gilgamesh is shown to be struggling against the gods, natural forces and his own mortality and this reflects his one's efforts to find rest in society and universe.
Importance of Reputation
Gilgamesh was a strong powerful leader who was more of God and stronger than any other king alive. He treated his subjects harshly and unkindly. This made people to ask the god of Uruk to create an opposing ruler who has equal strengths to Gilgamesh so that they might even be left to rest in peace. Enkidu was then created and he had scaring features that destroyed his reputation and he was referred to as 'wild man', this made Gilgamesh to tame him and even put off his marriage with the goddess of love. Gilgamesh was concerned about his reputation after fighting with Enkidu, they became friends and travel together for fights, he aimed at establishing eternal reputation saying he wants to " leave behind a name that endures"(pg.71). Gilgamesh would get ready for the journey by offering sacrices to Shamash so that he may get loyal friends, obtain weapons and he also sought intervention from her mother who had then adopted Enkidu.
In the epic of Gilgamesh, the gods possessed great powers that showed social values that were adored in the society. Gilgamesh was characterized by military nature and strong social standing for the people he represented and these revealed qualities of a good warrior that is valued within society. In the beginning of the story, Gilgamesh was a bad king, but later he became determined, considering his internal feelings and questioned his eternal mortality. It was the power of gods in the society, but not the population, that redirected his actions so that he may not harm the people.
Gilgamesh being a brave warrior, his people had confidence in him and they would fight fearlessly and would emerged victors with everyone they fight with. They fought with a mighty beast Humbaba and defeated him; this shows that even such a mighty enemy was still no match for Gilgamesh's extreme skill. It is said that, "Gilgamesh's tribe is unconquerable, and aroused by small insults", (par. 2). In this regard Gilgamesh's virtues as a awesome leader is revealed.
He proved his skill of a warrior and leadership ability beyond imagination when he rws the boat across the sea faster than a boat man. For one to be a good leader, one has to prove their powerfulness and ability to defend their people always. Gilgamesh revealed this throughout the entire epic. His intelligence is shown when he sought advise and counseling from his mother "who is wise AND worries not" (Tramp, par4). His reputation as a leader who sought no fame but fought for whole his kingdom is a true characteristic of a selfless leader.
Reputation plays an important role in the play Othello that was written by Shakespeare. It is evident that Iago wouldn't have been able to do what he did without such a good reputation of honesty. In fact Othello praises him and because of Iago's reputation Othello takes caution when he is talking. In the play Iago deceives Othello and all people through his reputation. In the other hand, Othello engages his reputation in every scene of the play, also the varying of Cassio's reputation plays an important role in the play. Othello revealed no nonsense military general characters that eventually lead to death of Desdemona. When he heard from Iago that Cassio and Desdemona were cheating on him, he became extremely upset and anxious that he couldn't think clearly and wanted to kill her. He said that "I will chop her into messes! Cuckold me?" (123 helpme.com, par.3). Othello couldn't believe that Desdemona could deceive him and cheated on him. Because of his reputation, he was unable to throw words on her in that situation. He kept anger in his heart since he knew that his reputation is going to be tarnished when it comes out that his wife was unfaithful to him. Reputation meant a lot to him and this is shown when he said that "for naught I did in hate, but all in honor" (123helpe.com, par3). His reputation was his treasure in relation to his position as a general and respect that he had from ranked below and above him. At the end of the play Othello died while trying to keep his reputation.
In the play, lago's reputation is exact opposite of his true nature. His reputation was being an honest man. He made all people to believe that he was honest as it is written of him as "O, that's an honest fellow..., you advice me well... goodnight honest lago" (123helpme.com, par.2). This made Othello to declare his loyalty and friendship to him. He would completely make everybody to strongly believe that he had very good personal qualities and honest person. Therefore, he often uses these qualities to gain favors saying that devils would show good characters first before their inner characters are revealed. Through all these, Lago was able to deceive Othello and made him believe that Desdemona was really unfaithful to him.
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Desdemona's innocent and pure reputation is destroyed by Iago when he had Othello to begin doubting her. His reputation protected him from being confronted by Othello throughout the scene. No one could doubt Iago, even if it ever came out that he was setting up to destroy Othello, Desmona and Cassino. He always controlled Othello's mind using his reputation to accomplish whatever he intends to do. Because of his honest reputation, he was able to damage Cassio's reputation and eventual death of Desdemona and Othello.
Throughout the scene, Cassio changes his reputation often and these took a major part in the play. He is shown as an honest, loyal and just soldier but his reputation comes to a halt when he gets drunk. Cassio depended on reputation in order to accomplish his missions, but when he was lowered from his position, his behavior changed and he was afraid of Othello. He said that "I have lost the immortal part of myself, and what remains is bestial"(123helpme.com, par.4). His reputation was spoiled after being demoted and Othello was not impressed and could not hold him as a friend anymore. Because of his drunkenness, Iago was able to convince Othello that he had affairs with Desdemona and were cheating on him. Othello told Casino that "I will make thee an example", (123helpme.com, par.4) and these openly revealed to him that he no longer earns trust from Othello, his friend. As he tried to resolve his differences with Othello, Iogo would come in and disrupts everything. Iago made spoilt reputation of Cassio has his stepping stone in accomplishing all his plans.
Oedipus being the main character is said to have met a tragic fate Oedipus is portrayed as a rash, unreasonable and overly confident king, who is always trying to keep up with his unavoidable fate. In the beginning of the play he is described as a great king and a ruler of the people of Thebes. When the people of Thebes came to him with a problem, he would solve it being a determined king. When the city went through problems he was eager to solve it in order to gain reputation and become a hero, he always looked for such opportunities. The people appreciated his greatness as a king and would always turn to him to find a solution to their problems. Oedipus from the beginning is considered as a great celebrity and a national leader of a state during the time of crisis. Thebes was attacked by plagues and they believed it was a manifestation of the fatal forces of the universe they lived. Because of his wisdom in dealing with adventurous things, people loved, acknowledged and respected him. They told him that "we judge you as the first of men in what happens in this life and in our interactions with the gods" (Johnston, par. 20). He was a person who had self assurance and confidence and ready to face any crisis taking it has his own unique challenge. He solved the riddle of the sphinx, he revealed his intelligence. His downfall is as a result of incidents beyond his control, and is rather the result of fate.
Answers to Shakespeare's Othello
Othello begins to doubt Desdemona when she asked Cassio to stay and see the way she would approach Othello, but he went away being ashamed of what he did the previous day. Iago who was with Othello said, "Ha! I like not that!" and this made Othello have second thoughts about rejecting Cassio and because of his reputations he couldn't be suspicious about his wife and her friend Cassio. Iago builds more doubts when he tells him that the two had been alone together before. When Desdemona leaves with Emilia, Iago preceded convincing Othello of her unfaithfulness. Iago makes Othello to develop jealousness and is not a jealous man by nature. Iago continued to convince Othello that his wife had deceived her father in marrying the Moor.
Emilia collaborated with Iago, in collecting the handkerchief that was dropped by Desdemona when she was with Othello but they came convincing Othello that she was using it to wipe Cassio's beards. When Othello asked him to produce more evidence, he said that he overheard Cassio mentioning Desdemona's name in a dream and with this he couldn't produce any evidence. Othello lost his sense of humanity as he insulted Desdemona and issued barbaric threats to Cassio. At these scenes it was the lowest point of Othello and on the other hand, it was highest point to Iago who seemed secure in his complete triumph.
Difference between Othello Play and the Movie
The play is an interpretation of the movie in many ways. It uses the text to develop the story and modernizes characters to appeal to the audience. The audience sees Odin as a basketball player and not a warrior as portrayed in the movie. Racial perception is brought up in a play as there is how uncivilized people are in Africa when Othello describes Africans as being "cannibals that eats each other". The theme of jealousy, racial bias and deceitfulness is revealed in both the play and movie. In the play, Rodrigo's character is overdramatic, simple minded and dearly loves Desdemona. Though Rodrigo's affection seemed adolescent and included jealousy, the movie cannot bring it out.
The choice of setting differs in the play and the movie. In the movie the choice of setting in regard to time and geographic location is of a modern era school and surrounding environment portraying modern time. This setting showed the politics involved in high school basketball play. The relationship of women's characters is similar, but the difference comes in the time and setting. The movie uses the difference in the play to emphasize its originality.
Reputation is important in our society today has it helps everyone in making judgments about others. The hero is more is more likely to be someone who confronts fate in a very personal manner and whose reaction to that encounter serves to illuminate for us our own particular condition. Gilgamesh was a strong and brave thus being qualified as an ideal warrior. He possessed many heroic qualities as powerful, impulsive, sexually aggressive, wanting to conquer the wilderness and protect his people. Othello's reputation played a big role in the outcome of the play and in part caused Desdemona's death and his own. Cassio was a loyal person to be a friend and he always followed orders he was given. Oedipus took every challenge with himself and he had a powerful sense of excellence and self worth. Since he had a high regard for himself, after saving the city when many others could not, people came to him because of his qualities.